There is no reason to think the vaccine would not work or would have negative effects if you have the virus but have no symptoms. You can get vaccinated as soon as your isolation period is over. You should not get vaccinated during your isolation period to avoid spreading the virus to others. Visit CDC’s Interim Clinical Considerations for Use of mRNA COVID-19 Vaccines Currently Authorized in the United States for more information.
For more information on the difference between isolation and quarantine, please visit https://www.cdc.gov/quarantine/index.html.